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The most common and familiar example of a salt is sodium chloride, NaCl. It is a simple, stable chemical compound with a straightforward structure (Na+Cl-). Na and Cl are oppositely charged, with sodium being one of the most electropositive elements (one that wants to lose electrons) & chlorine being the most electronegative element (one that wants to take them), so they easily join together in a strong ionic bond to form this substance.
This ionic solid has a melting point of 801 degrees Celsius or 1474 degrees Fahrenheit. It is a good conductor of electricity when in its molten state. It is also somewhat hygroscopic, meaning that it absorbs water from the air. When it is dissolved in water, the dissolution is endothermic, so it takes energy to release this water.
It is used in many applications, such as gritting roads, in cooking, and as a medical solution for some ailments. It is also a key ingredient in atomic bombs. It is commonly referred to as table salt, sea salt, halite, or rock salt.