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What is Manganese Dioxide?
The inorganic compound MnO2 is a powdery black substance that has the chemical formula. It’s insoluble with water, weak acids and bases, nitric or cold sulfuric acid. It’s used in the production of manganese, as well as an oxidizer and to remove rust.
Manganese Dioxide Preparation
Manganese dioxide can be obtained mainly by smelting soft manganese ores. Manganese sulfate is electrolyzed to produce the compound. Both soft and hard manganese ores can be used. Preparation of manganese-sulfate solutions includes leaching and iron removal. Neutralization, heavy metals removal, filtration, and static removal of calcium, magnesium, etc. After high temperature electrolysis, crude product is produced. Then, after stripping and crushing, washing and neutralization, drying and other treatments, crystals are obtained. When using manganese chloride solution electrolysis can produce fibrous manganese dioxide. The pyrolysis of manganese carbonate or manganese nitrogen is also possible. This method involves the direct oxidation low-valent manganese dioxide with oxidants, such as sodium chlorate gas, chlorine, oxygen etc. The combined reaction is a separate process.
Manganese dioxide – Applications
Manganese dioxide is used as a depolarizing and oxidizing agent in synthetic industry. It can also be used to color glass and enamel, and it can decolorize and deiron. It is used for the production of manganese, ferromanganese, gas masks and electronic material ferrit. Rubber can be made more sticky by using it in the rubber manufacturing industry. It can also act as a catalyst in chemical experiments.
Manganese dioxide is used in organic synthesis
This element is useful for organic chemistry. As manganese oxide has many crystalline forms, the form used for oxides can vary. The formula is MnO2-x-(H2O), where x is between 0 and 0.5, and n could be greater or equal to 0. Manganese dioxide is produced by reactions between potassium permanganate KMnO4 and manganese Sulfate MnSO4 at different pHs. at different pHs.
Manganese dioxide can be used to convert alcohols into aldehydes. The manganese oxide will not oxidize the alcohol if it has a double-bond:
The product won’t be oxidized even if its more active. Dialdehyde can be produced by oxidizing diols with manganese oxide. Manganese oxide can perform a wide range of reactions.
Uses of Manganese Dioxide in Laboratory
As a catalyst for the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into oxygen.
Use as a decomposition catalyst by heating potassium chlorate to produce oxygen.
Aluminothermic Reaction with Monolithic Aluminum Powder to Produce Manganese.
Yellow glass, for example, is used as a colorant.
Makes chlorine gas when heated concentrated hydrochloric acids is reacted with.
Produces potassium manganate when reacting with molten caustic Potash (potassium Hydroxide) in air.
Manganese oxide is used to autocatalyze the reaction between potassium permanganate and manganese.
Overview of Manganese Dioxide Toxicity
Poisoning is a health hazard: excessive manganese in the body. Acute poisoning in industrial production is rare, particularly in the extrapyramidal. Metal fume fever can result if a large quantity of fumes is inhaled over a short amount of time. The patient may experience headaches and nausea, as well as high fevers and sweating. Chronic poisoning is characterized by a variety of symptoms, including neurasthenia syndrome and disorders of plant nervous function. Mental symptoms such as excitation-inhibition imbalances, toxic psychosis and increased muscle tone are also common.
Flammability Hazard: This product is non-flammable, irritating and not dangerous.
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