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What is titanium Nitride?
Titanium-nitride is a non-stoichiometric compound. Its stable composition range is TiN0.37-TiN1.16, and the nitrogen content can be changed within a specific range without causing changes in the structure of the TiN. TiN, a nonstoichiometric material, has a range of stable compositions between TiN0.37 and TiN1.16, with the nitrogen content being able to be adjusted within that range. The TiN Powder is usually yellow-brown. The ultrafine TiN Powder is black. TiN Crystals are golden-yellow. TiN has melting points of 2950degC and density of 5.43-5.44g/cm3. It also has Mohs hardnesses of 8-9 as well as high thermal shock resistance. TiN’s melting point is higher than the melting points of most transition-metal nitrides. The density of TiN is lower than the majority metal nitrides. This makes it a material that is very heat resistant. The TiN crystallization is similar to TiC’s, but the C atoms have been replaced by N atoms.
Titanium Nitride as a Biomedical Material
Clinical medicine has widely used the occluder for interventional treatment in congenital diseases, such as the atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect and patent arteriosus. Most common concentrics occluders contain nickel up to 55% in nickel-titanium metal alloy materials. The body can become poisoned and allergic to nickel, which in turn may cause cancer. The surface membrane of the occluder Nickel-Titanium alloy may be damaged, and internal nickel ions released in the complex human environment can increase nickel content. This further deteriorates the tissue compatibility.
According to relevant studies, because titanium nitride is a biocompatible material (and was previously used in coronary-stents), thrombus formation is lower than with nickel-titanium. To address this problem, scientists developed a Cera Ceramic Membrane Occluder, using high-energy coating technology. It maintains both the original interventricular and atrial septal septal occluders based on the original Nickel-Titanium Alloy occluder. The design for the patent ductus arterial occluder, which uses plasma technology, evenly coats a titanium nitride (TiN) film on top of the nickel-titanium alloy powder. Using the ion technique, the metal Titanium coating and C N O and other components are transformed into the biological layers. The biological layer improves corrosion resistance and compatibility of biological tissue and blood. The comparison of the data from animal experiments shows that the Cera membrane occluder has a much higher performance in terms cell creeping growth. It significantly reduces thrombosis risk and helps repair congenital heart defects. Platelet adhesion rates and hemolysis are also much lower compared to the nickel-titanium standard occluder. Cera’s occluder was approved by other countries, including the European Union, India and Brazil. The Cera occluder has been used by more than 2,000 patients with congenital hearts disease.
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