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Titanium Carbide: An Introduction
The chemical formula of
TiC is a gray, metal-like, solid with a cubic facetted lattice. Its molecular weight (59.89) is also a TiC. The melting temperature of titanium carbide ranges from 3140+90degC to 4820degC. Its relative density is 4,93 and its hardness is higher than 9.
Titanium carbide, while insoluble in water is soluble with nitric acids and aqua regia. It is stable when the temperature is below 800. However, when the temperature is above 2000 it will be corroded.
Carbonized TiO2 and TiO2 powders are heated in electric furnaces to 2300-2700degC.
Titanium carbide, which can be used in the manufacture of hard alloys as well as for electrodes and abrasives used in arc lights, can be used.
Titan carbide can be prepared in several different ways
Reduce carbotherms using a reduction method
Use carbon black to reduce the TiO2 – the temperature range for this reaction is between 1700 and 2100. The chemical reaction formula:
Ti powder and carbon dust react to form TiC. The chemical reaction formula: Ti(s),+C(s),=TiC. The application of this method will be limited because it’s difficult to make sub-micron Ti powder. The reaction above takes between 5-20 hours and is hard to control. The reactants agglomerate and a further grinding process is needed to prepare fine particle sizes. Granular TiC powder. After ball milling, it is important to chemically purify the fine Powder to get a purer product.
Chemical vapor deposition
The synthesis method uses the reaction between TiCl4, and H2 and C.
The monofilament is soaked with crystals. The TiC produced by this method is subject to strict limitations on output, and in some cases even quality. It is important to be cautious when synthesizing TiCl4 because the HCl it contains can be very corrosive.
Use microwave energy to heat nano-TiO2 and carbon as raw materials. The dielectric loss in the high frequency electric field is used to convert microwave energy into heating energy.
Blast impact method
Preparing the precursor requires mixing the titanium dioxide powder with the carbon powder in a specific proportion. The powder density is set at 1.5g/cm3, the outer cylinder is made of metal, and the laboratory placed inside. It is then placed in an airtight container made by yourself for the experiment. The detonation powder will be collected after the shock wave. After sieving the black powder, impurities like iron filings and large particles are removed. After being soaked in Aqua Regia for 24hours, the black powder is turned brown. The powder is then placed into a muffle and calcined 400degC (400 minutes) to get a silver-gray color.
High-temperature self-propagating synthesis
(SHS) SHS is a method that derives from an exothermic chemical reaction. When heated at the right temperature, fine-grained Ti Powder has a high degree of reactivity. The combustion wave produced after ignition will pass through Ti and the C reactants, and the reaction heat generated by Ti and the C will generate TiC. SHS has a reaction time of less than one second. The synthesis requires fine, high-purity Ti powder for the raw material and output is limited.
Reaction ball grinding technique
The reactive ball milling technique is a method that utilizes the chemical reaction of metal or alloy powder with other elements or compounds during the ball milling to prepare required materials. Reactive ball milling is used to prepare nanomaterials using a high energy ball mill. This is mostly used to make nanocrystalline materials. The reaction ball grinding mechanism can be divided in two categories: the first is the mechanically induced high-temperature self-propagation reaction (SHS), while the second is the reaction ballmilling with no obvious exotherm and the reaction is slow.
Uses of titanium carbide
1. Use as an additive for metal bismuth and zinc melting crucibles and to prepare HDD large capacity memory devices and wear-resistant semiconductor films.
2. This is a component of cemented carburide used as a steelmaking deoxidizer.
3. As cermet it is known for its high hardness, corrosion-resistance, and thermal stability.
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