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This method is a technology that deposits a thick, solid coating on the surface a substrate using a gas-phase reaction. Due to the fact that the entire reaction in this method is based upon thermodynamics the CVD film offers good adhesion as well as coatingability. It also has a dense film layer and a high film-base adhesive strength.
This method has a disadvantage in that the processing temperatures are relatively high (generally, 9001200). The high temperatures cause the matrix of steel to soften. Vacuum quenching is required after the processing. The workpiece is easily deformed and the process is complex. This results in a decrease in the bending resistance of the matrix. In the process of preparation, harmful waste gases and waste liquids will be generated, which can easily cause industrial pollution. This is contrary to the green industry that the country advocates today.
2. Physical vapor deposition (PVD)
This method utilizes physical processes, such as thermal, sputtering and glow discharge discharge to deposit desired coatings on the substrate surface. This includes evaporation, sputtering and ion technology. The two latter PVD techniques are more widely used today for the preparation of ceramic coatings.
A PVD film’s brittleness makes it easy to peel and crack. In addition, linear processing has poor adhesion, and coating properties. During processing, the workpiece is required to swing or rotate. This increases the difficulty in designing the vacuum chamber. There are problems such as an ineffective coating.
3. Liquid deposition
This method forms a chemical film using a wet process. The basic principle is that by replacing the ligand between ions in the solution, the metal compound will move towards hydrolysis equilibrium and deposit metal oxide or metal hydroxide on the substrate. The method works under low-temperature/room temperature conditions. No heat treatment is needed, nor is expensive processing equipment.
The main disadvantage is that the liquid phase reaction is highly unstable and has many influences.
4. Thermal Spraying
This technique involves heating linear materials or powders into a molten, semi-melted, state by using heat sources such as arcs, flames, or plasma. High-speed droplets are formed and sprayed on the substrate, creating a coating. They can also be used as a protective layer, to restore or strengthen the surface properties of the material. Plasma spraying, flame spraying, or arc-spraying techniques are all part of the method.
5. In-situ Synthesis
The second phase of reinforcement is synthesized without pollution and is distributed evenly, which is an advantage over traditional processes such as powder metallurgy or smelting. The application of in-situ technology to metal and ceramic materials has increased with the development.
6. Other Synthetic Methods
Other synthetic methods include liquid EDM surface enhancement, sol-gel, self-propagating heat propagation, melting and cast methods, powder metal methods, mechanical alloying, thermal spraying, selfpropagating high temperatures, high density energy beam coating and other medium discharge methods. The preparation method for carbonized-based cermet can be selected according to the needs and conditions of industrial production.
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