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potassium hydrogen iodate is the potassium salt of the iodine anions (IO-3). It is an oxidizing agent and also acts as an analysis reagent. It is stable under most conditions but is rapidly degraded to iodinate in air, especially at high concentrations or in alkaline solutions. Potassium iodate is also used as an anti-dandruff additive in some foods and as an ingredient in baking powder.
Salt is a vital nutrient but it can be difficult for many people to obtain sufficient amounts in their diet. Iodization of salt is a simple, cheap method that can help prevent endemic iodine deficiency and the associated diseases such as goiter, thyroid storm and thyrotoxicosis. In addition, it reduces the risk of certain cancers.
Several techniques exist for fortifying salt with iodine, including mixing dry iodine with the salt by hand or with a simple piece of machinery. More commonly, a solution of iodate or iodide is sprayed or dripped onto the salt as it moves on a conveyor belt.
Iodination of alkanes can be accomplished with iodates but the yields are low. Diiodocarbenes are more readily formed and two equivalents of iodate add readily to terminal alkynes such as acetone to form diiodomalonic acid