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Overview of Nano diamond
The nano-diamonds, also known as diamond nanoparticles, are diamonds smaller than 1 micron in size and can be created by an explosive or meteorite strike. Due to its low cost, ease of large-scale synthetic, surface functionalization, high biocompatibility and easy synthesis, nano diamond has been extensively studied in the electronic, biological and quantum engineering areas.
Structure of nanodiamond
It is important to consider three main aspects of the structure and function of diamond nanoparticles. Through a series of experiments, it was determined that the shape and size of diamond nanoparticles are elliptic or spherical. The diamond cage is the core of diamond nanoparticles. It is mostly made of carbon. The core structure is very similar to the diamond. However the diamond nanoparticles have a surface similar to graphite. Recent studies have shown that the surface is composed mainly of carbon. However, it also contains a lot of phenol and pyrrole as well as sulfonic, carboxylic,, hydroxyl, and epoxy groups. Sometimes, there are defects in the structure of diamond-nanoparticles. A recent study has shown that the frequency and size of nitrogen-vacancy center decreases with diamond nanoparticles.
Production methods for nano-diamond
Other than the explosion, other synthesis methods include hydrothermal, ion bombardment and laser bombardment, microwave crystal chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD), ultrasonic synthesizing, and electrochemical. High-purity nanoparticles can also be produced by high-pressure and high-temperature graphite C3N4 decomposition. For commercial production of Nano Diamonds, the industry standard is detonation-synthesis. The most common explosive used to produce them is a mixture trinitrotoluene/hexose/monosaccharide.
The explosion takes place in a stainless steel chamber that is sealed and oxygen-free. It produces Nano diamonds as well as other graphite compound averaging 5 nanometers. Nano diamonds can only be created by detonation synthesis if there is no oxygen. This happens at temperatures above 3000K and pressures over 15 GPa. To prevent diamond nanoparticles from forming, the oxidation system must be rapidly cooled to increase the production of Nano-diamonds. This is because diamond remains the most stable under these conditions. Detonation synthesizers use liquid and gas coolants like water, water-based mousse and ice. Detonation results in synthesis, which is a mixture nano diamond particles and graphite carbon forms. Therefore, thorough cleaning must be done to remove all impurities. To remove SP2 and other metal impurities, either gaseous Ozone treatment or solution-phase nitric acid oxide oxidation are used.
Application prospect of Nano diamond
Nano diamond’s strength, hardness, thermal conductivity and biocompatibility are unique, making it a popular choice for precision polishing, lubrication and high-performance metal matrix composites.
Nano diamond is a material of rich characteristics and connotations. This is an area that presents great opportunities and challenges. Nano diamond is a product of years of research and production. This material can be used to produce raw materials for the defense industry, precision polishing industry, biomedicine, electronic, chemical, and other national economies. I believe there will soon be a wide application of Nano diamond in many other industries.
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