How can we enhance the electrochemical properties of nano-silicon materials for anodes?
The advancement and application of new energy is a strategic research direction that countries all over the world attach the greatest importance. The performance of the battery can have a significant impact on the development of the new energy industry. There are various kinds of batteries that could be utilized to store energy. There are many uses of lithium-ion batteries. They can serve in a variety of ways, including energy storage batteries as well as power batteries. Efficiency, capacity as well as the rate of retention of lithium-ion batteries are crucial indicators, and its capacity is the most critical.
The components of lithium-ion batteries include electrodes with positive and negative voltages along with separators electrolytes, packaging materials and separators. The improvement of lithium-ion battery performance is closely tied to the advancement of negative and positive materials. Materials for cathode are lithium iron phosphate, lithium cobalt dioxide and ternary material with a specific cycling capacity is typically less than 200mAh/g; the available anode materials are silicon-carbon, graphite and lithium titanate, as well as their ratios of cycling. The capacity is usually less than 420mAh/g, and further increasing the specific capacity of the anode material is a major research area that is recognized worldwide. The theoretical capacity of nano-silicon is up to 4200mAh/g. Its low efficiency in the primary and poor cycle retention are major reasons that restrict the use of nano-silicon.
The following strategies are used primarily to enhance the electrochemical efficiency and efficiency of the silicon-based anode materials
(1) Nano silicon materials:
Nanometerization in zero-dimension can reduce silicon’s absolute volume change. One-dimensional nanometerization decreases size of the volume changes in the radial direction during charging and discharging. Two-dimensional nanometerization can reduce the change in volume perpendicular to the film.
(2) Silicon alloy materials:
One is inert metals (Cu Fe, Mn and Ti, etc.). They are inert and do not react with Li+. The conductivity of the inert metal is high and accelerates Li+’s diffusion. It also functions as a buffer matrix. Another type may react with lithium. The active metals (Al Mg, Sn or Sb.) of the deintercalation reaction, the lithium-intercalation potential platforms of the active metals and silicon are quite different, and the lithium compound generated by the active metal intercalation can be used as a buffer matrix.
(3) Silicon carbon anode material:
The outstanding electrical conductivity of nano silicon materials and the high hardness of carbon are completely utilized by nano Silicon. The insufficient cycle retention for the nano silicon anode material has been a major drawback that hinders its use. The retention rate of the nano silicon anode material could be enhanced by coating silicon particles with carbon or by converting some silicon into silicon carbide. The current usage of silicon-carbon-based anode materials has shown that silicon anode material must also be utilized in conjunction with graphite anodes, and the proportion of silicon in anode materials must be less than 15 percentage.
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